Hepatitis is a process characterized by various degrees of infiltration of the liver by inflammatory cells of the immune system and damage to the cells of the liver tissue itself.

Hepatitis is classified according to its duration (acute when lasting less than 6 months, or chronic), according to its pathological pattern and its cause.

Types of hepatitis

Ischemic hepatitis: A severe disturbance in the blood supply to the liver can lead to ischemic hepatitis and congestion in the liver due to congestive heart failure or Budd-Chiari syndrome. ).

Chronic hepatitis: Metabolic diseases that cause cirrhosis of the liver, such as Wilson’s disease, hemochromatosis, and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, may also appear in the form of inflammation. Chronic liver.

Autoimmune hepatitis: Hepatitis may appear with an autoimmune mechanism (autoimmune hepatitis) alone, as a disease in itself, or as part of a systemic disease, such as sarcoidosis.

  • Granulomatous hepatitis is a special and unique type of liver infection, and is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the biopsy taken from the liver.

Hepatitis granulomatosis may arise from contaminants (eg, tuberculosis), by autoimmune diseases (eg, sarcoidosis), due to Crohn’s disease, or as a reaction to medications or disease primary in the liver


Symptoms of hepatitis

Symptoms of hepatitis are not specific. They include:

  • Fever (high body temperature)
  • Weakness
  • Anorexia
  • Nausea and vomiting

Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen

  • Joint and muscle pain
  • jaundice

Dark-colored urine

A high percentage of hepatitis patients do not show any symptoms and the disease is discovered by chance, through blood tests. In others, liver failure may be the initial symptom of the disease.



Definition of sensitivity:

It is a reaction of the immune system of the person allergic to some substances (such as vaccines, mites, fungi, some foods … and others) that, of course, do not affect normal people.

The immune system usually fights harmful substances that enter the body, but in the case of allergies, it fights some substances as if they are harmful (false alarm) by producing anti-histamines that cause allergy symptoms, and the patient is usually allergic to more than one substance.

It is an inflammation of the membranes lining the nose, and it occurs when breathing or inhaling one of the substances to which the patient is allergic (irritants), where a group of symptoms begin to appear within minutes of exposure to these substances, and can affect sleep, ability to work, and focus at school.


Other names:

Allergic rhinitis – hay fever.


The Reasons

  • The genetic factor, as if one of the relatives such as the father, mother or brother is affected, the rate of allergy increases.
  • Pollen and pollen is the main trigger for allergic rhinitis. When it is in the air, in hot and dry weather, when the wind blows, and during the pollination seasons of some plants, the prevalence of symptoms increases in contrast to humidity and cold and rainy weather in which symptoms appear less, and the appearance of symptoms varies from person to person. And from one region to another.
  • Allergens in the surrounding environment, such as pet hair, dust, mold, some types of smoke or odors



  • sneezing
  • Coughing.
  • Itching (eyes, nose, mouth, throat, and skin).
  • runny nose.
  • stuffy nose;
  • Puffiness under the eyes.
  • Headache.
  • sore throat.
  • Watery, red, or swollen eyes.


When to see a doctor:

If symptoms do not improve and are not controlled within 2-4 weeks or symptoms begin to affect productivity and task performance.



The doctor asks about family history and personal history related to allergies, and then he will examine the internal tissue of the nose to make sure that there are no swellings or infections, and he may resort to the use of a nasal endoscope when needed.


Risk factors:

There are several factors that may increase the chance of developing allergic rhinitis, such as:

Having another type of allergy (such as asthma, eczema … and others).

A family member has any type of allergy.

Direct and continuous contact with allergens, whether in the work environment or at home.



Neglecting to treat allergy symptoms leads to the following complications:

Asthma worsening.


Middle ear canal infections.



Nasal allergy treatment focuses on relieving symptoms, not treating the allergy itself. It includes:

Drug treatment (as prescribed by a doctor):

Antihistamines (tablets, sprays, or drops).

Steroid spray.

Decongestants (tablets or drops).

home treatment:

Use a saline solution to rinse your nose when symptoms are mild. You can buy it at a drugstore or make it at home.



Staying away from allergens, and this means controlling the external environment in which the patient lives, by doing the following:

Close windows tightly in the house and car, and stay away from gardens and orchards in the spring and early summer season (the time of plant pollen in the air).

Stay away from animals that cause allergies such as cats, horses, and birds.

Reducing the presence of dust mites (they are tiny living creatures that feed on dead skin cells that the body gets rid of during sleep, and when the droppings of this mite dry up, they fly in the air and the infected person inhales them, causing allergy symptoms. This mite lives on pillow covers and pillows.

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